World Antimicrobial Awareness Week 2020

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Key definitions

Antimicrobial resistance happens when microorganisms withstand the results of medicines, making infections tougher to regard and extending the danger of illness unfold, serious sickness and loss of life. Combatting antimicrobial resistance is an international
precedence that wishes coordinated motion throughout all executive sectors and ranges of society.

HIV drug resistance is brought about by means of adjustments within the genetic construction of HIV that is affecting the power of substances to dam the replication of the virus. Minimizing the emergence and transmission of HIV drug resistance is an important a part of world
efforts to handle antimicrobial resistance.


Department knowledge notice

Over the previous decade, the arena has witnessed extraordinary scale-up of antiretroviral remedy (ART), which has stored the lives of tens of thousands and thousands of other people. As of December 2019, 25.four million other people out of an estimated 38 million other people residing with HIV
have been receiving ART globally. An larger use of HIV drugs has been accompanied by means of the emergence of HIV drug resistance, which has additionally regularly larger lately. 

If no longer avoided, resistance can jeopardize the efficacy of antiretroviral medication, as proven by means of a newly printed systematic overview and meta-analysis. Resistance may be related to an larger choice of HIV infections and HIV-associated instances and
deaths.

To coordinate the worldwide effort to give protection to the long-term efficacy of HIV drugs, WHO, in collaboration with HIVResNet, an international HIV resistance community, advanced an HIV drug resistance prevention and evaluation technique. The technique supplies an outline of WHO-recommended
movements on the nation point to fight pointless emergence and transmission of drug-resistant HIV.

The 2020 up to date HIV drug resistance technique – which is to be launched ahead of the tip of the yr – considers courses realized within the box during the last decade and anticipates the continued scale-up of antiretroviral remedy and HIV pre-exposure
prophylaxis in low- and middle-income international locations all through an technology of transition to dolutegravir-based regimens.

The basis of WHO’s advice is the advance, by means of international locations, of a 5-year nationwide motion plan on HIV drug resistance, which is aligned with the Five key pillars of the Global motion plan on HIV drug resistance:

  1. prevention and reaction,
  2. tracking and surveillance,
  3. analysis and innovation,
  4. laboratory capability, and
  5. governance and enabling mechanisms.

The Global HIV Drug Resistance Global Action plan mirrors and is interlinked with the Global motion plan on antimicrobial resistance.  

Standardized surveillance of HIV drug resistance supplies international locations with actionable proof this is used to optimize affected person and population-level remedy results. The surveillance of pretreatment HIV drug resistance (drug resistance provide within the virus of other people beginning or re-starting antiretroviral remedy) informs the nationwide collection of commended first-line antiretroviral regimens. WHO has advanced survey easy methods to track pretreatment HIV drug resistance
amongst adults and
babies.  

WHO has simply launched the steerage on HIV drug resistance surveillance in international locations scaling up pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).
While it’s universally anticipated that HIV an infection can be an rare match amongst populations taking pre-exposure prophylaxis to forestall HIV an infection, drug-resistant HIV can emerge within the very small quantity of people that would possibly transform inflamed whilst
taking PrEP. This can negatively have an effect on the effectiveness of to be had antiretroviral remedy choices because of using the similar medication for each prevention and as parts of commended first-line antiretroviral remedy.

Countries enforcing HIV drug resistance surveys are inspired to accomplish HIV drug resistance trying out at laboratories designated by means of WHO for the aim of appearing HIV drug resistance trying out for surveillance.

Map: WHO HIV drug resistance laboratory community

These laboratories are contributors of the WHO HIVResNet and serve as underneath the WHO HIV drug resistance Laboratory Operational Framework.
This 2d version, simply printed in 2020, displays fresh technical and strategic trends, together with attention of next-generation sequencing strategies, updates to straightforward working procedures and high quality assurance of HIV sequences
such because the integrase gene and assay validation suggestions. The commended specimen sorts for HIV drug resistance genotyping are plasma or dried blood spots. Dried blood spots will have to be used for HIV drug resistance surveys through which plasma can not
be treated as in step with WHO suggestions. The WHO handbook for HIV drug resistance trying out the usage of dried blood spot specimens,
3rd version  simply printed in 2020, emphasises perfect practices for dried blood spots preparation, garage and delivery, in addition to choice of suitable sure controls. 

WHO’s HIV drug resistance document 2019 confirmed considerable growth within the surveillance of HIV drug resistance. Between 2004 and 2020, 57 international locations applied surveys of HIV drug resistance the usage of WHO-recommended strategies (see map underneath), and 17 international locations have plans to behavior surveys. Countries
are strongly inspired and supported of their efforts to promptly interpret, disseminate and use HIV drug resistance survey information at nationwide and world ranges to tell remedy coverage alternatives and to recommend for sturdy HIVDR prevention and reaction
efforts.

Map of nations enforcing nationwide HIV drug resistance surveys, 2004–2020

Implementation of national HIV drug resistance surveys, 2004–2020

 


Webinar 

Join  us for a webinar on “Addressing HIV drug resistance to give protection to the effectiveness of HIV remedy in birthday celebration of World Antimicrobial Awareness Week 2020 on 20 November from 14:00 to 15:30 CET (Amsterdam, Berlin, Rome, Stockholm, Vienna time)

The webinar will quilt WHO’s approach to track and reaction to HIV drug resistance, newest world epidemiological information, new surveillance strategies, and most up-to-date information on resistance to new ARV drugs used for HIV remedy and prophylaxis.

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